The JuxtaLearn Taxonomy

The JuxtaLearn Taxonomy is a series of prompts which are displayed when teachers enter details of a Student Problem. Having described the student problem, the Taxonomy prompts teachers to reflect on the underlying reasons why the students are having these problems, capturing their responses through a series of check boxes. These check boxes display below the text entry box in the Create Example Student Problem. The JuxtaLearn Taxonomy responses for each Student Problem are automatically linked to the related Stumbling Blocks and re-displayed later in the JuxtaLearn process to scaffold the writing of quiz questions that focus in on the problem areas. The Taxonomy is summarised below:

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Terminology One term refers to multiple concepts One scientific term has a different meaning depending on the context it is used in. e.g. volts and voltage in Physics. Use of the term kinetic energy in both Physics and in Biology.
Problems with use of language and scientific terms, and inconsistent and overlapping terminology
One concept has many scientific names. Different terms are used to refer to the same concept.e.g. voltage is also referred to as potential difference. Confusion between voltage and charge.
Scientific use of everyday language everyday terms that students believe they understand in a scientific context.e.g. the “drop” part of “forward voltage drop”, “work done” in physics.
Incomplete pre-knowledge Understanding of Scientific method, process and practice Simplistic understandings that may need to be unlearned or revised e.g. imagining atomic structure as balls on sticks suggests space between atoms. Previous knowledge schemes to be modified to understand scientific practice.
Previous understandings that need to be unlearned, modified or improved to understand the Tricky Topic
Underpinning understandings Understanding that the student is expected to know already. e.g. to do the calculations related to Avogadro’s number in Chemistry assumes a math understanding of powers of ten and ratios.
Essential Concepts Underpinning concepts Knowledge is required in order to understand the Stumbling Block. e.g. to understand genetic drift, a student needs to know about natural selection.
Key assumptions and knowledge that relate to the tricky topic, without which it is impossible to understand it
Complementary concepts Complementary knowledge the student needs
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to learn alongside the stumbling block.Understanding genetic drift involves learning about its causes; founder effect and bottleneck effect.

Intuitive Beliefs Weak human-like or world-like analogy Human-Like or world like analogy. Viewing scientific concepts in terms of everyday phenomena e.g. males of any species are bigger than females. Plants suck up food from soil thru roots.Analogy based on metaphor that doesn’t carry through e.g. “Stage” and “Costume” used in Sense programming.
Informal, intuitive ways of thinking about the world. Strongly biased toward causal explanations
Key characteristic conveys group membership The belief that if one condition is fulfilled, then the object is automatically a member of a groupOne unobservable core feature defines membership of a category eg: one to one relationship between DNA and physical traits. Birds have wings therefore all creatures with wings are birds.
Flawed causal reasoning based on the assumption of goal or purpose eg birds have wings so they can fly. Genes turn off so that cell can develop properly. Inappropriate assumption of cause and effect, eg release an object along a

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curved path and it will continue in a curve, rocks are pointy so animals won’t sit on them and crush them.


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